FAQ

Lead acid batteries are amongst some of the most widely used batteries in the world. They make use of a reversible chemical reaction to store electrical energy as chemical energy and then release it at the appropriate time. The chemical reaction within any lead acid battery is the same. Plates of Lead and Lead oxides active materials are suspended in a sulphuric acid electrolyte. The electrolyte facilitates the flow of Electrons between then plates. The plates are held apart by a separator material to prevent shorting and placed within a container to hold the system. Each battery can consist of one or more cells.

VRLA is an acronym for Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid. A valve is used on a lead acid battery to prevent gas being lost during charging (and especially overcharging). The valve acts as an independent pressure-relief valve to prevent over pressurisation of the battery and regulate any potential off-gassing (though, under proper normal use, off-gassing is a rare occurrence with Hawker® AGM batteries).

AGM is an acronym for Absorbed Glass Mat. It’s an absorbent fiberglass mesh material, layered between the negative (-) and positive (+) lead plates. AGM serves two purposes: (1) it acts a separator between the negative (-) and positive (-) plates to prevent short-circuiting, and (2) the matted material fully absorbs the electrolyte (allowing no free-flowing liquid), thereby making the battery essentially spill-proof. AGM construction has an increased compression between the AGM material, the lead plates, and the cell walls of the battery. This results in AGM batteries being the most vibration and impact resistant lead-acid batteries available today. Furthermore, since AGM batteries are virtually the same nominal voltage as flooded-cell (a.k.a., wet) and gel-cell batteries, they can be used as drop-in replacements, yet provide more power, greater Depth of Discharge (DoD), and longer life.

TPPL is an acronym for Thin Plate Pure Lead. Typical flooded-cell SLI (Starting, Lighting, and Ignition/Instrumentation) batteries have traditionally used thicker plates that are formed from a lead-calcium or lead-antimony alloy. TPPL batteries such as Hawker® batteries use thinner plates (up to twice as many plates than are found in a same-sized flooded-cell battery) and are made of 99.99% pure lead. More plates equate to more active-material surface area. Pure lead paired with greater surface area equates to more power, deeper discharge capability, longer shelf-life, and longer expected operational life.

Battery terminals are the electrical contact points used to connect to a load (e.g., a vehicle, a generator, a winch, etc.) or a battery charger. One battery terminal is marked positive (+) and the other is marked negative (-). For standard vehicle batteries, the battery terminals are normally on the top of the battery but may also be found on the side. Typically, the terminals will be standard automotive battery terminal posts (most widely used), threaded studs, or threaded receptacles.

SLI batteries are designed to provide the initial short-burst of energy to power a vehicle’s starter, lights, and instruments (SLI). While SLI batteries are good at providing short bursts of current, they are not designed to provide long term energy (Capacity). In fact, after engine start, the vehicle’s alternator generates most (if not all) of the energy to power the lights, instruments, and accessories, as well as recharge the battery. SLI batteries are commonly found in the average personal vehicle. However, an SLI battery is not designed to be drained to more than a 40% Depth of Discharge (DoD) – it should always retain at least 60% of its energy (known as a 60% State of Charge or SOC) or else there is a risk of internal damage to the battery. Normally, when choosing an SLI battery the CA and CCA ratings are the most important ratings (see definitions below).

A deep-cycle battery (commonly referred to as a “marine” or “leisure” battery) has the power to provide sustained energy without the need for an external power source. Deep-cycle batteries are designed to be regularly discharged of their full Capacity. Often, AGM deep-cycle batteries are used to power communications equipment, lights, sirens, winches, tactical equipment, etc. on vehicles when the engine is off, or to power trolling motors on boats. They can be drained below 40% DoD – down to 100% DoD – and still be recharged (recovered to a fully charged state). Normally, when choosing a deep-cycle battery the Capacity rating is the most important rating. However, if the battery will also be used for starting, then the CA and CCA ratings are equally important (see definitions below).

Specifically, Voltage (V) is a unit of measurement for electromotive force. The electromotive force is caused by a difference in charge between two points (e.g., between the battery’s positive (+) and negative (-) battery terminals). Colloquially, voltage is known as electrical pressure; it’s the force that moves electrons through circuitry to provide power.

Typical vehicle batteries are called 12-volt batteries, but that’s just a generic term. Actually, different types of lead-acid batteries have different “top-off” voltages. In fact, standard 12-volt flooded-cell batteries typically measure 12.6 volts Open Circuit Voltage OCV) and AGM batteries typically measure 12.9 volts (OCV) when the batteries are fully charged.

For a single battery, Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) is the measurement of voltage between its positive (+) and negative (-) battery terminals when there is no load on the battery. In other words, the battery is at a state of rest, neither providing power nor receiving a charge. Since a lead-acid battery is a direct current (DC) power source, measurement is usually conducted with either a DC voltmeter or a multi-meter with a DC voltmeter setting.

For a single battery, Closed Circuit Voltage (CCV), commonly known as “load” voltage, is the measurement of voltage between its positive (+) and negative (-) battery terminals when there is a load on the battery. In other words, the battery is providing power (or is receiving a charge). For battery-powered systems (direct current), measurement is usually conducted with either a DC voltmeter or a multi-meter with a DC voltmeter setting.

A load is the amount of current being drawn from the battery, measured in amps (e.g., a 25-amp load.) While engine start is typically the greatest single load placed a battery, headlights, instrumentation, fans, radios, etc. all place additional loads on the battery, especially when the engine is off (as the alternator is no longer providing power).

Electric current is the rate of flow of electric charge (specifically, electrons) through a specific point in a closed-circuit loop. Current flow is measured in amps.

An Amp (or Ampere) is a unit of measurement for electrical current (a.k.a., flow). It’s equivalent to the combined charge of 6.24 quintillion (that’s 6.24 billion billion) negatively-charged electrons passing through a single point in one second. When moved by voltage (electrical pressure) through circuitry, electrons are what power equipment. For battery-powered systems (direct current), measurement is usually conducted with either a DC ammeter or a multi-meter with a DC ammeter setting.

Resistance is a unit of measurement of an object’s (e.g., copper, rubber, etc.) opposition to the flow of electrical current in a direct current (DC) circuit. Note that in alternating current (AC) circuits the equivalent is called “impedance”. The measurement for both is expressed in ohms. For both AC- and DC-powered systems, measurement is usually conducted with either an ohmmeter or a multi-meter with an ohmmeter setting.

Internal resistance is the level of electrical resistance within a battery. For example, the internal resistance of a new Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery is a relatively low 0.0017 ohms, while a new 6TMF battery is 0.009 ohms (that’s 5.3 times higher resistance). Furthermore, a dead battery’s internal resistance may be 0.645 ohms…which is 380 times greater!

Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) is a standard battery industry rating referring to the cranking power that a fully-charged battery has available to start an engine when the battery is at -18°C (0° F). This rating is defined in SAE J537 and specifically refers to the amount of amps that a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver at -18°C (0° F) for 30 seconds while still maintaining a battery voltage of at least 7.2 volts (that’s 1.2 volt per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery has a CCA rating of 1225 amps, while the same-sized flooded-cell 6TMF battery has a much lower CCA rating of 725 amps. Bottom line: The more CCAs the battery has, the more power available to start an engine in very cold climates. Note: A battery’s CCA rating will be lower than its CA rating.

Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) is a standard battery industry rating referring to the cranking power that a fully-charged battery has available to start an engine when the battery is at -18হC (0° F). This rating is defined in EN50342-1 and specifically refers to the amount of amps that a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver at 0° F (-18°C) for 10 seconds while still maintaining a battery voltage of at least 7.5 volts followed by a short rest of 10 seconds and then a discharge at a second lower rate of 60% of the original current rate for at least 90 seconds and the battery voltage has remained above 6.0 volts. The CCA EN rating for a battery is normally higher than the CCA SAE rating for the same battery. For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery has a CCA SAE rating of 1225 amps, and a CCA EN rating of 1310 amps.

Cranking Amps (CA) is a standard battery industry rating referring to the cranking power that a fully-charged battery has available to start an engine when the battery is at 0°C (32° F). The rating specifically refers to the amount of amps that a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver at 0°C (32° F) for 30 seconds while still maintaining a battery voltage of at least 7.2 volts (that’s 1.2 volts per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery has a CA rating of 1550 amps, while the same-sized flooded-cell 6TMF battery has a much lower CA rating of 900 amps. Bottom line: The more CAs the battery has, the more power it has to start an engine in all but very cold climates. For very cold climates, refer to CCA. Note: A battery’s CA rating will be higher than its CCA rating.

Marine Cranking Amps (MCA) is a standard battery industry rating typically found on marine (boat) batteries. MCA and Cranking Amps (CA) are synonymous.

Hot Cranking Amps (HCA) is a standard battery industry rating referring to the cranking power that a fully-charged battery has available to start an engine when the battery is at 80° F. The rating specifically refers to the amount of amps that a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver at 80° F (27°C) for 30 seconds while still maintaining a battery voltage of at least 7.2 volts (that’s 1.2 volt per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery has an HCA rating of 1730 amps.

Pulse Hot Cranking Amps (PHCA) is a non-standard battery industry rating referring to a 5 second burst of cranking power that a fully-charged battery can provide to start an engine when the battery is at 80° F. The non-standard rating specifically refers to the amount of amps that a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver at 80° F (27°C) for 5 seconds while still maintaining a battery voltage of at least 7.2 volts (that’s 1.2 volt per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery has a PHCA rating of 2250 amps. The 5 second cranking duration represents the average time to start a normal engine.

Reserve Capacity (RC) is a standard battery industry rating referring to the length of time the battery can maintain a typical application’s electrical needs in the event of alternative power source failure. The rating specifically refers to the number of minutes a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver a constant 25 amps at 80° F (27°C) while maintaining a voltage of at least 10.5 volts (that’s 1.75 volts per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery has an RC rating of 240 minutes, while the same-sized flooded-cell 6TMF battery has a lower RC rating of 200 minutes.

An Amp-hour (Ah, or ampere-hour) is equal to providing 1 amp of current for 1 hour. For example, 500mAh battery will provide 500 milliamps of current for 1 hour. An 80.7 Ah battery will provide 80.7 amps of current for 1 hour (assuming a C1 Rate, see C-rate below).

The C-rate is the constant rate at which a battery is being fully discharged relative to its maximum Capacity. For example, a C-rate of C1 is the equivalent to a battery being fully discharged in 1 hour at a specific constant load (or current). A C20 rate is the equivalent to a battery being fully discharged in 20 hours at a specific constant load (or current). When a number is placed before the C-Rate this refers to a discharge being completed in less than an hour, for example 3C refers to a battery being fully discharged in 1/3 of an hour (20mins). See a detailed example in the “What is Capacity?” FAQ.

Capacity represents the maximum amount of current stored in a battery in terms of amp-hours (or ampere-hours; Ah) when discharged at a specific constant rate (known as C-rate). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery has a Capacity of 120 Ah at a C20 rate [denoted as 120 Ah (C20)]. So, divide 120 by 20, resulting in a continuous 6 amps of constant current throughout the 20-hour period, at the end of which the battery will be drained to 10.5 volts (that’s 1.75 volts per cell) and be considered fully discharged. Be cautious when comparing different batteries by their Capacity ratings to ensure that the C-rate specifications are identical, since Capacity is affected by the C-rate, and the Capacity/C-rate relationship is non-linear. For example, at a C5 rate the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery has a Capacity of 102.5 Ah, which is 20.5 amps for 5 hours. At a C1 rate it can provide 80.7 Ah, which is 80.7 amps for 1 hour. As is shown, at faster discharge rates, the battery provides fewer total amp-hours.

Depth of Discharge (DoD) is the degree to which a lead-acid battery has been discharged. It’s usually stated as a percentage of the battery’s rated amp-hour (Ah) Capacity. For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery is rated at 120 Ah (C20). However, if 12 Ah are drained from the battery, it’s considered to be at 10% DoD. Inversely, the battery is considered to have a 90% State of Charge (SOC).

A Battery is cycled when it is discharged and then recharged. The amount of times a battery can be cycled before it reaches its end of life (EoL) condition is referred to as its cycle life. The cycle life of a battery is determined by the quality of the materials used in its construction, the depth of discharge that the battery routinely sees, the operational temperature of the battery. A battery which has a shallow depth of Discharge will have a greater cycle life than a battery which has a deeper depth of discharge.

Generically, shelf-life is the amount of time a new battery can be stored, under specified conditions, before it requires recharge. Specifically, it’s is the length of time, under specified conditions, that a new battery can be stored such that it retains its guaranteed Capacity. A new Hawker® battery 6T when stored at 25°C (77°F) can usually provide up to 30 months of shelf-life. Using an appropriate preventive maintenance charger can extend the shelf-life by up to a factor of 5.

A phenomenon in batteries in which chemical reactions within the battery reduce its charge. This can happen even when the battery’s terminals are not connected to a vehicle or piece of equipment. Self-discharge decreases both shelf-life and the expected operational life of batteries. Note: Use of an appropriate preventive maintenance charger can help to counter self-discharge, thereby increasing battery life.

A MIL-PRF is a United States military performance specification. The Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery is manufactured to meet or exceed the requirements of MIL-PRF-32143C (“C” represents the current revision).

Defence standards are used by the UK military to ensure that products they use are fit for purpose by meeting a documented standard. Defence Standard 61-021 describes the general characteristics of batteries which are used by the UK military forces. Defence Standard 61-021 is broken into several supplements which describe specific battery chemistry, types and performance characteristics. Supplement 42 describes the 6T format of lead-acid batteries.

VG96924 is a battery specification used by the German army to describe the specific 6T format for use in Germany. It is split into several documents including a methods section part T02 and a compliance section T09.

BCI is an acronym for Battery Council International. BCI is a trade association that provides industry standards for the sizing, types, and testing of lead-acid batteries. For example, a BCI Group 34 battery’s dimensions should be approximately 10 1/4”L x 6 13/16” W x 7 7/8”H (260mm L x 173mm W x 200mm H), have standard SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) battery terminal posts, with the positive (+) post on the top of the battery near the forward-left corner and the negative (-) post on the top of the battery near the forward-right corner. Often, the battery group size is indicated in the battery model (e.g., the Hawker® MIL PC G31 SAE is a BCI Group 31 battery). Typically, an “R” designation in the model number refers to a battery where the positive (+) and negative (-) battery terminals have been swapped from their normal BCI group size standard position (e.g., see ODYSSEY® battery model 34-PC1500 vs the 34R-PC1500T).

An NSN is a National Stock Number. NSNs are assigned to items (e.g., batteries, tyres, lubricants, etc.) that are routinely procured, stocked, and issued within the NATO supply system. When deemed necessary, NATO supply system items are assigned an NSN by NATO authorised agencies. It’s normally a 13 digit code (e.g., the NSN for a 6TAGM battery that is “qualified” via MIL-PRF-32143C is: 6140-01-485-1472.). Since an NSN is linked to a qualified product, it is possible that multiple manufacturers (or suppliers) are authorized to provide their qualified product under the same NSN.

An NCAGE code is a NATO Commercial and Government Entity code. It’s assigned by NATO authorised agencies and is used to identify a legal entity (e.g., a business) at a specific location (factory or sales location). An NCAGE a five-character ID number; the EnerSys® CAGE code for the plant where the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery is manufactured in the USA is 0WY95. In instances where ordering a specific manufacturer’s (or suppliers) product through the federal supply system by NSN is not feasible, use of the manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) CAGE code in conjunction with that manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) Part Number (or Product number) can be used.

A Product Number is synonymous with a manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) Part Number. For example, the Product Number for the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery is: 9750N7025. In instances where ordering a specific manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) product through the federal supply system by NSN is not feasible, use of the manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) Product Number (or Part Number) in conjunction with that manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) CAGE code can be used.

Generally, only batteries that are the same model from the same battery manufacturer and about the same age should be wired in parallel, series, or series-parallel configurations. Standard vehicle batteries are available in many different sizes (6T, G31, G34, etc.), types (flooded/wet, gel, AGM), chemistries (pure lead, lead-calcium, lead-antimony), and nominal voltages (6-, 8-, 12-, and 24-volts). As such, they have different characteristics in terms of fitment, electrochemical properties, electrical capabilities, and hazard classification. For example, two batteries with similar physical dimensions may have different top-off Open Circuit Voltages (OCV), Cold Cranking Amp (CCA) ratings, as well as Capacity ratings. Furthermore, they may have different charge/discharge profiles, cycling capabilities, Usable Reserve ratings, and internal resistances (see definitions below).

Due to potential differences in charge/discharge characteristics, one or more batteries may become overcharged and/or one or more battery may be left undercharged. As a result, individual battery State of Charge (SOC) imbalance occurs which may result in safety and/or performance issues. In the case of an overcharge, this may create a potentially dangerous situation due to extreme heat and/or excessive off-gassing. Furthermore, either undercharging or overcharging batteries will ultimately shorten battery pack life. Also, since the batteries may become damaged, normally the manufacturer’s warranty will be voided.

Yes. Battery Capacity is reduced as temperature goes down and increased as temperature goes up. This explains why a vehicle battery dies on a cold winter morning, even though it worked fine during the previous warm afternoon. Batteries will also self-discharge, the rate of which is governed by the temperature it is exposed too. A typical flooded-cell SLI battery loses about 3% of its Capacity per month when kept at 25°C (77°F), whereas the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery loses much less at about 1 to 1 1/2 % per month. However, for every 8.3°C (15°F) increase in temperature, the self-discharge rate doubles from its previous rate. So, at 33.3°C (92°F), the self-discharge rate for flooded cell is 6%, and for a typical AGM it is 2-3%. At 41.6°C (107°F), the self-discharge rate for flooded cell is 12%, and for a typical AGM it is 4-6%.

  1. Insufficient vehicle run-time. Engine cranking requires energy. For example, a light tactical vehicle may require 500 CCAs, whereas a heavy combat vehicle may require 2000 CCAs. If the engine is constantly started, then immediately stopped, the alternator will not have enough time to fully recharge the battery.
  2. Battery self-discharge. A battery’s State of Charge (SOC) should be routinely monitored (approximately every 3 months), especially if it’s stored or installed on a vehicle or piece of equipment that is left unused. If the battery is not fully charged, recharge it back to its full rated Capacity. It is highly recommended that fully charged batteries in storage be placed on an appropriate preventive maintenance charger (a.k.a., float charger, trickle charger, etc.) until they are needed. If the battery is in a vehicle or other equipment that is not used on a regular basis, periodically check the battery’s Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and recharge it if the voltage has dropped. For a Hawker® battery, it is highly recommended that the battery be recharged when its OCV drops to no less than 12.65 volts.
  3. Temperature induced failure. As mentioned above, increased battery temperatures cause an increase in the battery’s self-discharge rate. If the battery is allowed to drain, this will result in decreased shelf-life and decreased expected operational life.
  4. Dirty battery terminals and/or case. Dirty battery terminals increase resistance and make the vehicle’s electrical system work harder. Furthermore, if enough conductive dirt, debris, or corrosion creates a connection between the negative (-) and positive (+) battery terminals, a surface discharge can occur across the top of the battery case, thereby draining the battery.
  5. Intermixing of batteries of different size, type, chemistries, voltages, or from different manufacturers. Also, identical batteries of different ages. Different batteries may have different voltage and CCA ratings. Additionally, they may accept voltage at different rates, gas at different temperatures, and (based on battery chemistry) may have different internal resistances. Furthermore, even new and old batteries of the same type and size from the same manufacturer may have different internal resistances (caused by normal plate sulphation over time as an older battery ages).
  6. Parasitic drain and/or leaving loads on when the vehicle is not is use. If a vehicle has a “master” power switch, it’s advisable to turn it to the “off” position when the vehicle and its equipment are not in use. If the vehicle is off, but its equipment is still in use, it’s highly beneficial to have a low voltage load shedding/reduction program in place to protect batteries from over-discharge (assuming the vehicle has a battery management system). Under load shedding, when battery’s (or battery pack’s) voltage drops to a certain level, non-critical items (as assigned by the user) are powered “off” and only mission-essential equipment remain “on”. For example, load shedding in a nominal 24-volt system (note that fully-charged Hawker® batteries provide 25.5 volts when wired in series and series-parallel configurations) typically occurs when the voltage drops to about 23 volts (CCV), this results in increasing battery life to power essential loads only. Since there are fewer loads on the battery pack, the voltage will then increase due to the lower amount of load being placed on the battery pack. Note, however, that once the battery pack again falls to 23 volts (CCV), all power will cease, therefore all equipment will be powered “off”.
  7. Faulty electrical system. Verify that the vehicle’s wiring and accessories are not shorting out (a.k.a., short circuit). And, when using AGM batteries, ensure that the voltage regulator only allows passage of no more than 15 volts toward a single battery or batteries wired in a nominal 12-volt parallel configuration and no more than 30 volts toward batteries wired in a nominal 24-volt series or a nominal 24-volt series-parallel configuration.
  8. Physical damage. Do not stack batteries more than two high. Do not stack a battery directly on top of another battery, unless the bottom battery is in the manufacturer’s original shipping box. If the manufacturer’s original shipping box is not available, place non-conductive dunnage material on the top of the bottom battery such that it rises at least ¼ inch above that battery’s terminals, then stack the second battery on the dunnage (insuring that it is not resting on the bottom battery’s terminals). By keeping batteries off the ground/floor, it reduces the likelihood of damage caused by rolling stock (from such items at hand trucks, pallet jacks, forklifts, etc.). Furthermore, due to potential temperature transfer, by keeping batteries off a cold ground/floor it reduces the likelihood of freezing a battery’ Likewise, by keeping batteries off a hot ground/floor it reduces the likelihood of increasing the battery’s self-discharge rate (thereby reducing both shelf-life and expected operational life).

Yes, Hawker® batteries are supplied with a limited warranty. Please discuss with your commercial representative for details of your warranty.

In accordance with various shipping regulations (listed below), Hawker® batteries are classified and certified as non-spillable (UN2800). As such, they are exempt from hazardous goods transportation requirements for air, land, and sea when:

  1.  if uninstalled:
  1. the battery’s terminals are protected against short circuiting (e.g., the manufacturer’s original plastic battery terminal covers are installed), and
  2. the battery is securely packed in strong outer packaging (e.g., the manufacturer’s original shipping box) or secured to skids or pallets capable of withstanding the shocks normally incident to transportation, and
  3. the outer packaging must be plainly and durably marked “NON-SPILLABLE” or “NON-SPILLABLE BATTERY”.
  1. if installed:
  1. the battery must be securely fastened in the equipment or vehicle’s battery holder, and
  2. the battery must be prevented from unintentionally activating the equipment or vehicle, and
  3. the equipment or vehicle’s outer packaging must be plainly and durably marked “NON-SPILLABLE” or “NON-SPILLABLE BATTERY”. However, the requirement to mark the outer packaging does not apply when the battery is installed in a piece of equipment or vehicle that is transported unpackaged.

If authoritative guidance is required regarding either the definition/classification of a “non-spillable” battery or the shipping requirements for “non-spillable” batteries, refer to:

  1. U.S. Department of Transportation: See 49 CFR Section 173.159, paragraph (f) and 49 CFR Section 173.159a
  2. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): See Document 9284 – Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air, Special Provision A67 and Packing Instruction 872
  3. International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations: See Special Provision A67 and Packing Instruction 872
  4. International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code: UN Number 2800, Class 8 (batteries, wet, non-spillable, electric storage). See Special Provision 238 and Packaging Instruction P003

No. A battery can be at or above the battery’s rated voltage, yet still not meet the battery’s CA, CCA, or Capacity ratings. In other words, it’s possible to recharge a deeply-drained, deeply-sulphated nominal 12-volt battery whose Open Circuit Voltage measures 5 volts (though rated at 12.9 volts and 1225 CCAs), and while at the end of charge cycle the battery’s OCV reaches the 12.9 volts rating, it is only capable of providing 10 CCAs. See below for proper testing methods.

A parasitic drain is an unintentional (and undesirable) load on a battery. This is especially important if the engine is off, as these parasitic loads can drain the battery. Many tactical and combat vehicles have electronic systems, as well as other tactical equipment that, which if installed improperly, will drain the vehicle’s batteries. If experiencing constant “dead” batteries, the first places to look are the accessories that might be causing excessive parasitic drain.

A Hawker® battery is considered to be at the end of its expected operation life when one or more of the following applies:
  • During an Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) test, a fully charged battery measures less than 12.65 volts, then the battery should be replaced, and/or
  • During a Capacity test, a fully-charged battery fails to provide at least 80% of the battery’s rated Capacity when discharged at a specified C-rate (e.g., for a Hawker®ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery, when discharged at the C20 rate, if the battery measures less than 96 Ah, then the battery should be replaced.), and/or
  • During a conductance analysis test, a fully charged battery fails to provide at least 80% of the battery’s rated CCAs (e.g., if a Hawker®ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery measures less than 980 CCAs, then battery should be replaced), and/or
  • During a mechanic’s load test, a fully charged battery fails to remain above 9.9 volts Closed Circuit Voltage (CCV; a.k.a., load voltage) during the load test. The specified load should be equal to 1/2 of the battery’s rated CCAs and be applied for 15 seconds (e.g., for a Hawker®ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery, apply a 612.5-amp load for 15 seconds, during which the battery’s load voltage must remain at 10.0 volts CCV or higher, if not, then the battery should be replaced.
Even though a battery passes the OCV test and one or more of the other three above tests, be careful not to mix identical batteries that have developed significantly different capabilities (usually, the result of plate sulphation as batteries age). For example, in a parallel, series, or series-parallel configuration:
  • During an Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) test, ensure all fully charged batteries are within a 0.15-volt OCV range of each other (e.g., if the highest battery measures 12.9 volts OCV, then the lowest battery should measure no less than 12.75 volts OCV.), and
  • During a Capacity test, ensure all fully-charged batteries are within a 10% Ah range of each other when discharged at a specified C-rate (e.g., if the highest Capacity battery measures 120 Ah (C20), then all batteries should be within 12 Ah range of each other, so the lowest Capacity battery should measure no less than 108 Ah (C20)), or
  • During a conductance analysis test, ensure all fully charged batteries are within a 10% CCA range of each other (e.g., if the highest battery measures 1225 CCAs, then the lowest battery should measure no less than 1102.5 CCAs), or
  • During a mechanic’s load test, ensure all fully charged batteries are within a 0.4 volts CCV range of each other (e.g., if the highest battery measures 11.2 volts CCV, then the lowest battery should measure no less than 10.8 volts CCV).
Before charging, it’s recommended that you visit the Hawker® Video Vault and view the following training videos:
  1. “Battery Charging: Conventional Chargers”
  2. “Battery Charging: Advanced (Voltage Sensor) Chargers”
Also, refer to TB 9-6140-252-13.
Before installing, it’s recommended that you visit the Hawker® Video Vault and view the following training videos:
  1. “Battery Testing: Multi-meters”,
  2. “Battery Testing: Mechanics Load Testers”
  3. “Battery Testing: Conductance Analysers”
  4. “Battery Testing: Parallel, Series, and Series-Parallel”
Also, refer to TB 9-6140-252-13.
Before installing, it’s recommended that you visit the Hawker® Video Vault and view the training video entitled, “Battery Inspection: Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus”. Also, refer to TB 9-6140-252-13.
Before storing, it’s recommended that you visit the Hawker® Video Vault and view training video entitled, “Proper Battery Storage”.
An NSN is a National Stock Number. NSNs are assigned to items (e.g., batteries, tyres, lubricants, etc.) that are routinely procured, stocked, and issued within the NATO supply system. When deemed necessary, NATO supply system items are assigned an NSN by NATO authorised agencies. It’s normally a 13 digit code (e.g., the NSN for a 6TAGM battery that is “qualified” via MIL-PRF-32143C is: 6140-01-485-1472.). Since an NSN is linked to a qualified product, it is possible that multiple manufacturers (or suppliers) are authorized to provide their qualified product under the same NSN.

An NCAGE code is a NATO Commercial and Government Entity code. It’s assigned by NATO authorised agencies and is used to identify a legal entity (e.g., a business) at a specific location (factory or sales location). An NCAGE a five-character ID number; the EnerSys® CAGE code for the plant where the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery is manufactured in the USA is 0WY95. In instances where ordering a specific manufacturer’s (or suppliers) product through the federal supply system by NSN is not feasible, use of the manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) CAGE code in conjunction with that manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) Part Number (or Product number) can be used.

A Product Number is synonymous with a manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) Part Number. For example, the Product Number for the Hawker® ARMASAFE Plus 6TAGM battery is: 9750N7025. In instances where ordering a specific manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) product through the federal supply system by NSN is not feasible, use of the manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) Product Number (or Part Number) in conjunction with that manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) CAGE code can be used.

TYPETITLEDATENSNPART NUMBER
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus UK6TNMF09.166140-99-219-29039750N7000
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus UK6G4009.166140-99-665-36489570N7020
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus NBB24809.166140-12-190-90279750N7018
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus HASP-FT-6TAGM09.166140-01-485-14729750N7025
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus BB-10N09.166140-25-139-61839750N0250
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV12009.166140-99-690-66329750N7010
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV120 MAN09.166140-12-369-85899750N7036
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV120 (Dutch MoD)09.166140-17-117-77439750N7032
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV120-DT09.166140-99-738-05749750N7005
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV9509.16N/A9750N7071 / 9750N7073
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV95 (Dutch MoD)09.166140-17-126-1601 / 6140-17-126-16029750N7092 / 9750N7081
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV7509.16N/A9750N7070 / 9750N7072
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV75 (Dutch MoD)09.166140-17-126-1599 / 6140-17-126-16009750N7091 / 9750N7080
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV5509.16N/A9750N7054 / 9750N7049
Data SheetArmaSafe Plus 12FV55 (Dutch MoD)09.166140-17-126-1598 / 6140-17-111-54669750N7089 / 9750N7090